urandom – Random Number Generation

The module ‘’urandom’’ provides functions for random number generation. ‘’urandom’’ is based upon the random module in the Python standard library.



Returns an integer with n random bits where n may be between 1-32 (inclusive).


Initialize the random number generator with a known integer n. This will give you reproducibly deterministic randomness from a given starting state (n).

urandom.randint(a, b)

Return a random integer N such that a <= N <= b. Alias for randrange(a, b+1).


Return a randomly selected integer between zero and up to (but not including) stop.

urandom.randrange(start, stop)

Return a randomly selected integer from range(start, stop).

urandom.randrange(start, stop, step)

Return a randomly selected element from range(start, stop, step).


Return a random element from the non-empty sequence seq. If seq is empty, raises IndexError.


Return the next random floating point number in the range [0.0, 1.0)

urandom.uniform(a, b)

Return a random floating point number N such that a <= N <= b for a <= b and b <= N <= a for b < a.